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Grain/Wheat/Flour

Regional wheat figures 2014:
• The 29 EastAgri countries produced about 173 million tons.
• The three largest producers were Russia at about 60 million tons, Ukraine at about 24 million tons, and Turkey at about 19 million tons.

Regional wheat figures 2013:
• The 29 EastAgri countries produced about 164.5 million tons.
• The three largest producers were Russia at about 52 million tons, Ukraine at about 22.3 million tons, and Turkey at about 22 million tons.
• Wheat exports were about 45.5 million tons.
• Wheat imports were about 12.5 million tons.
• The two largest exporting countries were Russia and Ukraine.
• The two largest importing countries were Turkey and Azerbaijan.

Regional flour figures 2013 [wheat]:
• Exports were at about 5 million tons.
• Imports were at about 2.3 million tons.
• The 2 largest exporting countries were Turkey and Kazakhstan.
• The 2 largest importing countries were Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.


Click pie chart for full world production and trade statistics

Wheat is the most important crop among the cereals and has a greater protein and caloric content than any other food group, remaining one of the most affordable sources of protein in many countries. It is grown in most parts of the world, yet the European countries achieve the highest yields. Wheat is also used for animal feed and biofuels.

Most wheat is consumed in the form of baked goods and therefore must be milled to produce flour prior to consumption, therefore the flour milling industry is the main consumer of wheat. Wheat flour is the most important product of wheat milling and is used in home cooking, and baking and confectionary industries. The three main flour exporting countries in 2008 were Kazakhstan (17%), the European Union (13%), and Turkey (12%). The leaders of flour importers are Brazil and Libya. However, of the two, wheat grain is a more widely traded product than wheat flour due to lower import tariffs on wheat grain and logistical and quality issues, such as shorter shelf life of flour as compared with wheat grain.


Production and trade in the EastAgri region


EastAgri top wheat producers in 2012
CountryQuantity (tonnes)% of region total
1. Russia37,719,64028%
2. Turkey20,100,00015%
3. Ukraine15,762,60012%
Region total133,836,674-
EastAgri top wheat exporters in 2011
CountryQuantity (tonnes)% of region total
1. Russia15,185,95350%
2. Ukraine4,097,30914%
3. Kazakhstan2,891,48210%
Region total30,256,964-



EastAgri top wheat importers in 2011
CountryQuantity (tonnes)% of region total
1. Turkey4,754,68243%
2. Azerbaijan1,166,57211%
3. Poland816,6537%
Region total11,105,634-








- For full wheat production and trade stats in the EastAgri region please click here

- For import and export trade partners for wheat, please click here
- For import and export trade partners for flour, please click here


Related project pages

  • Reinforcing Public-Private Dialogue in the Ukrainian Grain Sector - Project Page

  • Related publications

  • Agribusiness Handbook: Wheat Flour (2009)
  • International Grain Reserves and other instruments to address volatility in grain markets (2009)

  • Related meetings and workshops

  • The 8th International Trading Summit Grains & Oilseeds 2013, Morocco
  • 12th meeting of Working Group on Ukrainian Grain Market, Kiev, April 2013
  • Cream of the Crop: the use of Grain Warehouse Receipts in Agricultural Finance, June 2012
  • Ukrainian Working Group visits FAO and Naples to discuss grain market, March 2012
  • Ninth Annual Black Sea Grain Conference, Kiev, Ukraine, April 2012
  • 3rd Ukrainian Grain Congress, October 2012
  • 2nd Ukrainian Grain Congress, October 2011
  • A Step Forward for the Ukrainian Grain Sector, Kiev, January 2011
  • Grain Warehouse Receipt Study Tour, Kazakhstan, November 2010
  • Ukrainian Grain Sector Finds a Friend in France, France, October 2009

  • Related news

  • Encouraging Ukraine's small grain farmers to diversify, March 2016
  • Traditional wheat varieties of Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan are subject of research, January 2016
  • Greater grain market transparency in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, October 2015
  • EBRD and FAO organise round table of Kazakh grain experts, October 2015
  • EBRD co-finances new flour mill in southern Kyrgyz Republic, December 2014
  • EBRD and FAO support key grain sector reform in Ukraine, November 2014
  • EBRD provides USD 25 million for grain trader Nibulon, November 2014
  • EBRD channels USD 40 million to support Ukrainian grain farmers, April 2014


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